State Historical and Architectural Reserve

1. South (Entry) Tower

Time of construction - the beginning of the XVIII century. From inside the rectangular tower (7.73 x 10.35 m) is separated from the yard 7-foot moat, the outer side of the ditch width - 24 m. Height from the base of the tower down teeth - 20 meters. The thickness of the walls of the lower tier of 3-4 m. The overlapping hipped shingled hip roof covering. Login originally housed in the side wall of the lower tier of the east, while the western, southern and eastern walls of the upper tier was made of two wedge-shaped arched window. In the XIX century. He was knocked a hole in the second tier and is equipped with a modern entrance to the tower by a wooden bridge on the stone pylon.

2. South-west tower

Time of construction - the beginning of the XVIII century. Round three-tiered tower restored with thicker walls on the site of a previous tower 60-70. XV c., From which remains a small part of the west wall with a brick pattern. The height from the yard - 14.25 meters from the outside - 28.5 m, diameter - 14 m. Ends teeth-merlons thickness of 1.6 m (the distance between the outside - 1.2 m in - 0, 4 -0.9 m), blocked by shingled roof tent. In a small room on the lower tier of 9 meters high, formed by a hemispherical dome and powerful two-meter walls, housed the smithy.

3. Western (Commandant) tower

Time of construction - 60-70. XVII. Oval plan tower with a diameter of 5 m thick walls of about 2 meters from the territory of the fortress courtyard is combined with the Commandant's palace. To the level of detours built a stone monolith, cut carinate loopholes for artillery battle. Only the top - tier oval space combat, which can be reached via a stone staircase from the combat area of u200bu200bthe western wall. The height of the tower from the courtyard - 17 m, external height from the base of the cliff - 62.5 m. Ends merlons and cone-shaped roofs covered with shingle. The victim at the end of the XVII century. Then there were the lost fragments of the ornamental decor of red brick, restored at the beginning of the XVIII century.

4. North Tower

Time of construction - 60-70. XVII. Erected on the spot or on the basis of the earlier (maybe even of ancient time) separate towers of the keep or tower, inscribed in the walls. Rectangular (18 x 19 m), four-tiered tower of about 68 m from the outside, from the yard - 15.75 m. The original tower was three-tiered, and in the XIX century. appeared in between the 4th tier. Login raised on the level of the court, located in the south wall. Besides him there was another truck entrance through which supplied weapons and other dimensional loads: in the middle of the XVIII century. Tower also served as a warehouse. The lower part to the level of the floor and tier is a solid monolith, the interior of the upper part is divided into two parts: in large rooms arranged in three martial tier with wooden beams on the beams and shafts for lifting loads, a smaller (along the wall of the court) contains transitions Cams drunk ladder . The loopholes of the first and third tiers were used for gun-battle, the other - for the gun. Tower completed the teeth-merlons that protect the ancient battle site. On the third tier with passages on the defensive wall.

5. East Tower

Time of construction - 60-70. XVII. The rectangular tower (6 x 6 m) from the base to the level rounds of solid monolith, complete teeth, covered with a hipped roof with a hipped shingled surface. Height outside - 55.5 m, the height from the yard - 17.5 m. Battle stage is arranged at the level of the eastern wall of the stairwell, from it you can get on the slab at the base of teeth-Merloni. Three walls (apart from the west) are made loopholes for artillery battle.

6. Princely palace

Time of construction - 60-70. XVII. Summary about the site (or more precisely, over the place) ditch limited fortress from the south in ancient times. The rectangular building (17 x 10.5 m) in height of 14.25 m adjacent to the west wall of the citadel of the Commandant of the tower. In the XVIII century. Turks did to her completion of the south (12 x 8 m) in height of 10.25 m, which is now framed as an open veranda. The palace, built of white stone blocks and bricks on stone foundations, inside is divided into two parts: the Big East (residential) and less Western (economic) which has a separate entrance from the north. Vaulted basement room has two separate entrance through an extension on the southern facade. A striking feature of the appearance of the house has a horizontal chess masonry walls in which white stone blocks alternating with red and partly dark cherry with brick, which gives the construction of the solemn elation. A characteristic feature of the palace is also the use of shaped carved white stone blocks that were made portals and framing windows. These authentic elements, like the roof, attic floor, lost in XIX-XX centuries. In the course of repair and restoration works that have been conducted since 1991 .. The building restored to southern, eastern and northern facades, roofs and floors very roof, floors, restored white stone profiled door and window frame.

7. Barracks room

In the 60-70-ies. XVI century. simultaneously with the construction of the defensive walls of the citadel was built two-storey building, which preserved the northern room on the first floor of the church and the amount of fragments of the northern part of the western facade of the volume of the barracks. The room is often reconstructed: significant changes, particularly internal alterations occurred in the XVIII and XIX centuries. When adapting a building under artillery arsenal. Modern dimensions - 29 x 15 m with a thickness of the east wall of 4 m, and the western - 1.5 m. The monument is a rare type of military and civil architecture, at the same time performing the role of defensive structures and premises in the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries.

8. Castle church

Time of construction - the last quarter of the XV century. At the same time or immediately after the construction of the eastern defensive wall into the interior of which includes the apse of the church with a window-loophole. Actually, the church was undeveloped on the second floor of the building, the lower part of which is adjacent to the barracks, making it a single volume. The porch, the porch came later, during the reign of Petru Rares (1527-1538, 1541-1546 gg.). Turkish traveler Evliya Çelebi in the middle. XVII. She recalls it as a large, fortified monastery is very similar to the fortress, calling it Shtefanivskim. Perhaps the chapel once envisioned as a prince, in 1493 Mr .. Church in the fortress Hawtin Stefan III was donated tetraevangelie. Rectangular (16 x 8 m) nave, bezstovpovy odnoapsidny temple combines Romanesque and Gothic styles. As a result, the architectural study of the existence of the castle chapel are three main periods of construction: XV century, when the reduced main room, adjacent to the eastern defense wall and west wall with a portal serves the front; The XVI century, when being completed arcade-porch; The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. When the chapel was converted into a mosque during his stay in the fortress of the Turkish garrison. During the repair and restoration work in the 80s. Twentieth century. at dismantling the walls of the mosque, built in the main volume of the church, it was discovered a small wooden coffin with the remains of a child under five years. Among other things, there was a coffin shroud with Italian fabric end XVI - early. The seventeenth century. with Cyrillic inscription, he reported that the servant of God Lozinskaya Elizabeth, the daughter of Vasily Lozinsky steward, died July 1, 1612 The girl was the granddaughter of the then pirkelaba (Commandant) Izlozyanu George fortress, whose daughter Elizabeth was the wife of the Moldovan Jeremiah Graves. Elizabeth was named Katerina, apparently in honor of his famous aunt, died of unknown reasons in childhood and honored to be buried in the castle chapel. Already since 1809 .. Castle church as Alexander appears in the forms stored in the archive Chisinau Theological Consistory, where she was spoken of as a stone, converted from a Turkish mosque, with the sacristy, "filled with books and satisfactory." In "Klirovye Gazette" for 1811 it is also referred to as "Khotyn fortress church of Alexander Nevsky stone, converted from a Turkish mosque", which served as a priest in on. Constantine Mankovsky. After increasing the number of Russian military garrison this small chapel ceased to satisfy his religious needs. In 1830-1832 gg. Outside the old fortress built a new church of Alexander Nevsky, and the church and castle housing the barracks began to be used as a military and economic facilities. After 1856 the building, like all the others, is in decline. Restoration work began only in 1986 .. And still going on, and the church was consecrated in honor of St. Sts Constantine and Helen, and belongs to the religious community of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church.

9. Defensive wall of the castle

Defensive wall of the castle is the main core of the citadel, which was formed in the fifteenth century, after the reconstruction carried out during the reign of the Moldavian ruler Stephen the IES (1457-1504). In 1711 Khotyn fortress passes directly under the Sultan, therefore, together with the construction of a new fortress constructed a new southern wall of the south tower and the Barbican, which became part of the defensive walls of the castle. In terms of the citadel is an irregular oval with walls thickness of about 6 meters and five towers, the height of the walls reaches 40 meters. The area of u200bu200bthe castle, surrounded by defensive walls, is divided into two courtyards, the level is higher than the ground level. Inside, there are a large south courtyard (courtyard Warriors) and the small northern (Princely Court). The interior space is divided Commandant of the palace and the church. In the second half of the fifteenth century, together with the construction of the defensive walls of the citadel was built two-storey residential building - barracks. Several times the room was rebuilt, so significant adjustment, particularly the internal re-planning, took place in the XVIII and XIX centuries. When adapting a building under artillery arsenal. Therefore, the dating of the monument chronologically continues until the XIX century. The monument is a rare type of military and civil architecture, at the same time performing the role of defensive structures and premises in the fifteenth and eighteenth centuries.

10. Castle well

Time of construction - not later than the XV century. Almost round shaft pit depth of about 50 meters square is framed (7 x 7 m) with a marquee rotunda shingled roof and crowned by a spire. In 1994 .. Mine cleaned of debris, but then recreated the rotunda over the well in accordance with the drawings of the middle of the XVIII century. Turkish officials, while served as secretary of Khotyn arsenal and left us his notes, as follows remembers it well: "In the center ... of the old fortress is a source, excavated in the rock; its depth of 300 fathoms, and it is powered by water from the Dniester. There is a talisman, guarding the castle, so it can not live any scorpions or snakes or reptiles, even chickens and pigeons. The latter have to be brought from the outside, and if you hold within a few days, they die. Also killed accidentally brought into the castle, along with hay snake, just touch the ground. "

11. Bridge at the South Tower №1

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12. Bendery gate

Bendery gate included in the new outer ring of fortifications fortress created by the Turks with the help of French engineers, the beginning of the eighteenth century. In terms of 1711 Bender gates designated as "entrance tower." Picture schematic and does not give a complete picture of her plan. Plan on August 19, 1739 gives a clear image of the plan Bender gates. In the 1769 general plan tower is designated as "Bender gates" (from the name of the city of Bendery in Bessarabia). During the Second World War, the gate was destroyed and was in such a state until 1985. Door height - 18,30 m. Since 1985, the gate was restored. Bender gates is one of the key structures of the outer ring of defense Khotyn fortress, which can be considered a model of defensive architecture ХVIII century.

13. Bridge near Bendery gate

Initially, the southern entrance arch Bendery gate belonged wooden bridge that was raised, arranged over a moat. The bridge was raised by chains that were part of the arch, at the end of which clung protivovisy (large stone balls) that were in the deep mines. Currently, the bridge has not survived. Later in his place by the width of the road was paved with masonry passage across the moat. Also interesting buildings and a bridge across the stream. Bridge across the stream connects the eastern and western parts of the new fortress. His first image presented in the master plan Khotyn fortress, dated 1739 year. First, there was a wooden bridge at the end of the seventeenth century in its place built a stone bridge on the arch, which was reconstructed around 1812. It is plausible, between one thousand eight hundred twenty-one and 1856 there was the last bridge with wooden superstructures, stone pillars. In the middle of the XVII century. the southern entrance of the tower in its present form did not exist. Her dating should be attributed to the second half of the XVII century., And tuning changes - up to the eighteenth century. When the French engineers carried out the expansion of the fortress. A new southern wall and a new south tower, there is now, and, accordingly, been a certain reconstruction of the citadel itself. In the XVIII century, the tower became the entrance. Through ditches it was transferred to her two wooden bridges. In the south tower is separated 24-meter ditch, which is spanned by a wooden bridge, which is based on a large stone piers. On the inside of the tower is also separated from the courtyard by a moat, but less - 7 meters, with a wooden bridge. The height from the base of the tower down teeth - 20 meters.

14. The tower above the stream (the ruins)

Tower over the flow in some iconographic material called "tower through which water flows," built in the XVIII century. Built in the defense ring of the new fortress. The plan in 1769 is designated as an arch with a tower covered with a hip roof. The object in this sense resembles a tower next to the gate Iasi. In the XIX century. the volume of the tower was lost.

15. Yasska brama

Yasska brama it belongs to the inner ring of fortifications Khotyn fortress, erected at the beginning of the XVIII century. Tower Iasi gate (there are also other names - Izmail, Janissary gate) was inbound from Mr .. Iasi. In 1739 master plan shows a rectangular tower passing through it. From the outside in front of the tower is a moat, across which a wooden bridge. After the gate was destroyed in 1856, and remained in that state until 1981. In the 1990s - 2000s. Restored.

16. Bridge near the gate Yasska

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17. Russian gates (ruins)

Russian gate first appeared on the plans Khotyn fortress after 1811. In the previous plan in its place shown by a solid wall of fortifications. Obviously, this gate was pierced in the western wall of the outer fortifications after Khotina Russian occupation troops, and it happened at the beginning of the Russian-Turkish War (1806-1812). November 26, 1806, General Michelson took Khotyn fortress, which has since become the center of Russian military garrison. Russian military officials have decided that one goal is not enough Iasi, so between the two bastions was laid new fare. Roughly the construction of the gate - 1807. After 1812, when Bessarabia was annexed to Russia, Russian gate lost its strategic importance. By 1931, on the plans of the fortress on the site of Russian fare gates existed without the tower. In 1931, during restoration work carried out by the Romanian administration, built a tower to a bridge, climbs over the moat. After the war, the building was completely lost. Today on the site of Russian gate there is only a narrow passage with a fragment of a stone wall.

18. Podil's'ki gates

Tower Podolski (Dniester or Water Gate) is included in the outer ring of fortifications XVIII century. The tower is located to the north of the citadel by the stream and was intended as an entry on the part of the Dniester. The date of the construction of Podolsk gate can be considered the beginning of the XVIII century. After 1856 Podolsky gate was destroyed.

19. Kamenetskaya gates

Kamenetskaya gate, another name - "Party bastions and" - one of the least studied the gate of the outer ring of fortifications (unlike Bender and Iasi). The date of construction of Kamenetz gate can be considered the beginning of the XVIII century, when in 1711 the Turks seized Hawtin and began the construction of the outer ring of defense. During the XVIII-XIX centuries. We were working to maintain the system of fortifications in a satisfactory condition. But after 1856 the fortress lost its defensive value, the system of fortifications remained unattended and came to decline. Underwent destruction and Kamenetskaya gates. By the time the construction of the New Fortress applies mosque with a minaret (ruins). Mosque minaret with a height of about 3 m was located in a specially-planned site near the center of the southern part of the New Fortress, built by the Turks in 1711 - 1718 Time of construction of this religious building allows to establish an anonymous connection Turkish author, 20-30 years HVIII century, was an employee of the arsenal Khotyn Fortress. He wrote that it was "valide mosque late Sultan." This title was of the ruling sultan's mother, in this case - Ahmed IES (1703-1730). She was a Greek by birth, a native of Reti; I enjoyed respect among Turkish Muslims as its facilities were built mosque in Scutari and Galati, as well as a foundation for the maintenance of the inn for the poor in Istanbul. He died 22 February 1716. Taking into account the date of commencement of construction of a mosque in New castle should be attributed to the years 1713-1715, when Khotyn permanently settled Turkish and Tatar (Lipkanskaya) military units, as well as the restriction of power Khotyn nahiye or Raya - Turkish territorial administrative unit, completely organized 1715. Alongside was arranged cemetery where buried officers, officials and members of their families. During the Russian-Turkish war of 1768-1774. It applies a schematic drawing of the "Prospectus Khotyn fortress of one thousand seven hundred sixty-nine the Year", which depicts and this mosque with a minaret. The following information on the Mosque belong to 1788-1793 gg. When in Khotyn fortress housed the Austrian garrison. The accompanying stories plans, taken while the Russian and Austrian military engineers, there was "firmly made up the mosque" "mosque built of hewn stone." It was adapted for housing for the commandant, two ground-officers and garrison priest. Obviously, before the evacuation of the Austrian garrison in February 1793, according to the order, the building was damaged specially, namely "... Remove all doors, door salaries, windows, salaries, dismantled the furnace and broke down the floor." November 15, 1806 Khotyn fortress took the royal army. In 1807, the engineer Major General Harting took the "Plan Khotyn Fortress with the situation around thereof ...", which shows the land and the mosque. The accompanying story stated: "The main mosque mother occupied with food." Thus, the religious building began to be used as the composition of the Provision. This is supported by numerous finds overheated cereals, discovered during the excavation of basements of the building (two thousand years). After the 1856 mosque with a minaret began to collapse. In the early twentieth century, as evidenced by the photos, the construction of the roof was gone, and the minaret lost shpilchaste completion. At the beginning of July 1941 the retreating Red Army blew up the minaret. Today cleared the remains of a mosque with a minaret make an idea about the religious building and allow it to reconstruct. Also interesting buildings and a bridge across the stream. Bridge across the stream connects the eastern and western parts of the new fortress. His first image presented in the master plan Khotyn fortress, dated 1739 year. On plans for 1775-1807 years the image of the bridge coincides with the previous ones. The explication of the plan in 1821 stated: "The Bridge on the stone arch that separates the castle into two parts." In the drawings, the restoration of bridges, which took place in 1812, is a facade, plan and section of the bridge over the stream. It can be argued that already between 1807 and 1812 years, that is, during the Russian-Turkish war, rebuilt the city and began to call on the Arch Bridge. After 1855 no evidence of a bridge across the stream has not. If we compare the natural material and iconographic evolution of the bridge looks like this: first there was a wooden bridge at the end of the seventeenth century in its place built a stone bridge on the arch, which was reconstructed around 1812. It is plausible, between one thousand eight hundred twenty-one and 1856 there was the last bridge with wooden superstructures, stone pillars.

20. Bastion Southeast

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21. South bastion

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22. Bastion Southwestern

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23. Bastion West

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24. Northwest Bastion

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25. Bastion Northeast

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26. The walls between the gate and the Podolsk Northeast bastion

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27. Walls between a lock and Kamenetz gates

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28. The walls between Kamenetz gates and bastion South-east

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29. Walls between bastions South-West and North-West

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30. Walls between bastions North-western and North-eastern

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31. Church of Sts. Alexander Nevsky

Church of St. Alexander Nevsky - a monument belongs to the facilities of one of the last periods in the evolution of complex structures Khotyn fortress. The church was built in the years 1830-1835 for the Russian garrison architect Shtauberga neoclassical style that was characteristic of the architecture of Orthodox religious buildings of the 1st half of the XIX century. After 1856 the church acquired the status of a parish to transfer it under the former parish school building craft workshops. During the Soviet era, the church was turned into a stable. Only in 1991 the church was constructed in the iconostasis. At the beginning of the XXI century performing exterior painting. Now - the current church.

32. Garrison workshops

Garrison workshop Russian army garrison was built on the former site of the court of the Turkish Pasha (on the foundations of the palace of the Turkish pasha), and then the commandant's house. Construction of the facility is at the beginning of the XIX century, but some researchers believe that the plan on the nature of the building is typical for HVIII century. In the years 1833-34 were located in the house engineering workshop and a smithy. Since 1851, it houses the Office of Engineering with the drawing. In the early twentieth century building of the former garrison workshops used the parish school in the name of the Church of St. Alexander Nevsky. During World War II the building was damaged and destroyed condition remained until the end of the 1970s. In the early 1980s, in the course of repair and restoration work, arranged two additional inputs to accommodate premises for exposition.

33. Bridge over stream

Also interesting buildings and a bridge across the stream. Bridge across the stream connects the eastern and western parts of the new fortress. His first image presented in the master plan Khotyn fortress, dated 1739 year. On plans for 1775-1807 years the image of the bridge coincides with the previous ones. The explication of the plan in 1821 stated: "The Bridge on the stone arch that separates the castle into two parts." In the drawings, the restoration of bridges, which took place in 1812, is a facade, plan and section of the bridge over the stream. It can be argued that already between 1807 and 1812 years, that is, during the Russian-Turkish war, rebuilt the city and began to call on the Arch Bridge. After 1855 no evidence of a bridge across the stream has not. If we compare the natural material and iconographic evolution of the bridge looks like this: first there was a wooden bridge at the end of the seventeenth century in its place built a stone bridge on the arch, which was reconstructed around 1812. It is plausible, between one thousand eight hundred twenty-one and 1856 there was the last bridge with wooden superstructures, stone pillars.

34. Building on the source of the brook

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35. The mosque with a minaret (ruins)

By the time the construction of the New Fortress applies mosque with a minaret (ruins). Mosque minaret with a height of about 3 m was located in a specially-planned site near the center of the southern part of the New Fortress, built by the Turks in 1711 - 1718 Time of construction of this religious building allows to establish an anonymous connection Turkish author, 20-30 years HVIII century, was an employee of the arsenal Khotyn Fortress. He wrote that it was "valide mosque late Sultan." This title was of the ruling sultan's mother, in this case - Ahmed IES (1703-1730). She was a Greek by birth, a native of Reti; I enjoyed respect among Turkish Muslims as its facilities were built mosque in Scutari and Galati, as well as a foundation for the maintenance of the inn for the poor in Istanbul. He died 22 February 1716. Taking into account the date of commencement of construction of a mosque in New castle should be attributed to the years 1713-1715, when Khotyn permanently settled Turkish and Tatar (Lipkanskaya) military units, as well as the restriction of power Khotyn nahiye or Raya - Turkish territorial administrative unit, completely organized 1715. Alongside was arranged cemetery where buried officers, officials and members of their families. During the Russian-Turkish war of 1768-1774. It applies a schematic drawing of the "Prospectus Khotyn fortress of one thousand seven hundred sixty-nine the Year", which depicts and this mosque with a minaret. The following information on the Mosque belong to 1788-1793 gg. When in Khotyn fortress housed the Austrian garrison. The accompanying stories plans, taken while the Russian and Austrian military engineers, there was "firmly made up the mosque" "mosque built of hewn stone." It was adapted for housing for the commandant, two ground-officers and garrison priest. Obviously, before the evacuation of the Austrian garrison in February 1793, according to the order, the building was damaged specially, namely "... Remove all doors, door salaries, windows, salaries, dismantled the furnace and broke down the floor." November 15, 1806 Khotyn fortress took the royal army. In 1807, the engineer Major General Harting took the "Plan Khotyn Fortress with the situation around thereof ...", which shows the land and the mosque. The accompanying story stated: "The main mosque mother occupied with food." Thus, the religious building began to be used as the composition of the Provision. This is supported by numerous finds overheated cereals, discovered during the excavation of basements of the building (two thousand years). After the 1856 mosque with a minaret began to collapse. In the early twentieth century, as evidenced by the photos, the construction of the roof was gone, and the minaret lost shpilchaste completion. At the beginning of July 1941 the retreating Red Army blew up the minaret. Today cleared the remains of a mosque with a minaret make an idea about the religious building and allow it to reconstruct.

36. The ruins of a building near the bridge over the creek

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37. The ruins, which are south of the South Tower

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38. Ruins which are north-west from the source

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39. Ruins which are north of Bendery gate

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