State Historical and Architectural Reserve

Khotyn war in 1621.

The most famous and the most important historical event that took place under Khotyn in the XVII century, in 1621 was a war between the Turks and the Poles, then owned vast territory of Ukraine and in which the crucial role played by Ukrainian Zaporozhye Cossacks headed by Hetman Petro Konashevych Sagaydachnogo.


The initial stage of Khotyn war between Poland and Turkey was Tsetsorskih 1620 war.


In early August 1621 the Turkish Sultan Osman AI concentrated under Khotyn nearly 160 thousandth army, which had more than 300 guns, a large number of camels, mules, horses, four elephants fighting. Poland at the time was able to counter the Turks, only 35 thousand army led by Jan Chodkiewicz. The first of the two armies fighting forced the Poles recall the recent Tsetsoroy mistakes and ask for help from the Zaporozhye Cossacks. Cossack Council decided to provide assistance to the king sent an embassy headed by P. Sagaidachnogo. Sorokotysyachnym the Cossack army under the leadership of hetman J. Warts gone to Moldova to meet the enemy. In addition to spray the Turkish forces, it was decided to intensify military operations in the Black Sea, which was sent to about 10 thousand. Zaporozhtsev.


The focal point of the fighting has become a fortress m. Khotyn where Poles took up defensive positions. This hurried P. Sahaidachny which King verbally promised to meet the requirements of Ukrainian. Not finding Cossacks under Khotyn, he went to meet them, the road was wounded and nearly fell into Turkish captivity, and still managed to break into the Cossack camp was at that time near Mogilev. Here Cossacks, disgruntled unsuccessful leadership of J. Warts in the Moldavian campaign, convened parliament, which threw him from the Hetman and sentenced to death. New Hetman Sagaidachnogo chosen again.


September 1, 1621 Cossack army came under Khotyn.


September 2 Sagaydachnogo headed over forty thousandth troops, engages in battle with the Turks. Sultan top of his troops to send Ukrainian realizing that breaking Sagaydachnogo can win the war. All day, from early morning until the evening were fierce battles. The fight was so brutal that the night could hardly stop it. Turkish artillery shelled continuously Zaporozhye trenches. Tatars violently attacked the advanced detachments of the Cossacks tried to cut them off from the rest of the troops. But the Cossacks bravely withstood the blows huge Turkish army, the enemy inflicted heavy losses to shake their confidence.


September 4 Sultan began a new offensive. Now he directs his numerous horde then the Cossacks, then the Poles, but again received a decisive rebuff. Turks continuously shelled Cossack regiments from large-caliber guns. Proficient in fighting Jan Karol Chodkiewicz admitted that "all my life heard such a roar of guns."


Skillfully maneuvering, Sagaydachnogo got positional advantage over the enemy, appearing not expected for this location, thus it demoralized the enemy army, and later directed the course of events toward the total defeat of the enemy.


From morning till evening, and then, with a few interruptions, and in the following days were bloody battles. The Cossacks held out, despite the fact that the enemy is much higher than their strength. Cossacks succeeded courage, skilful military tactics. They used their actions night raids into the enemy's rear, which gave significant results. Repeatedly Cossacks led a sortie himself Sagaydachnogo.


Successful actions of Cossacks, skillful maneuvers Polish troops gradually saps the strength of the Turks. Osman AI completely confused. September 28, he decided to give a decisive battle. This is how the day of an eyewitness and participant of the Battle Jan Sobieski:

 

"More than 60 guns rattled continuously, the sky glowed, 

and smoke in the air, the earth trembled,

moaning walls, rock disintegrates.

What the eye could see during the day, in order not to describe.

You can not express exactly what zeal courage

or rather despair fought both sides. "

 

 

Undoubtedly, the main role in this battle, as in the past, played a Cossack regiments. Having exhausted the Turkish forces, Sagaydachnogo led the Cossacks in the counteroffensive. The attack went and Polish troops. Sultan Osman was forced to conclude peace with Poland Khotin, which equates to defeat.


Khotyn war in 1621 was a turning point in the history of the Ottoman Empire. It struck his contemporaries as the number of troops took part in it, the scale of military operations, and the consequences. She dispelled the legend of power and invincibility of the Turks. Turks ceased to be an object of horror irresistible for many nations in Europe and Asia.


The victory at Khotyn saved Western Europe from the invasion of Janissaries, Cossacks and glorified Sagaydachnogo Hetman, whose authority as the commander has increased significantly. Khotyn battle made a strong impression on all the people and found a ready response in the literature. The songs of the heroes of this battle singing the Ukrainian people, the Polish poets have composed poems. Even on the distant shores of the Adriatic Sea on the heroism of Ukrainian and Polish soldiers he wrote to Croatian poet Ivan Gundulic, all participants in the war diaries copied. Polish poet Waclaw Potocki wrote a poem about Khotyn war, and Ukrainian writer Osip Macovei - story "Yaroshenko." On those events recalls Zinaida Tulub in his historical novel "Lyudolovy." Ivan Franko Khotyn about the meaning of victory, wrote that Turkey was defeated near Khotyn in 1621, the beginning of the slope of the zenith of its greatness and glory.


In ancient manuscripts preserved Ukrainian song:

 

"Oh glorious town Khotyn


The whole earth is a very nice "

 

Khotyn battle in 1673.

Khotyn during the second half of XVI - XVII century. It has frequently been the scene of fighting between the Polish-Cossack and Turkish troops. Located in Khotyn and sturdy stone castle built on the approaches to it earthworks allowed to conduct effective defense, and also to carry out under the cover of artillery, his crossing of the Dniester significant number of troops. Therefore, during the conflict opponents sought to use the strategic advantages offered Khotyn castle, especially in defense.

 

In September 1621 under Khotyn it took one of the large-scale military conflicts in Europe - the battle, which because of its durability called Khotyn war. In the battle against the army of the Turkish Sultan Osman II, together with the Crown and Lithuanian forces took part in the army of the Zaporozhye Cossacks led by Hetman Petro Konashevich Sagaydachnogo.

 

However, a very different event proceeded Polish-Turkish conflict in 1673, when Hetman Jan Sobieski planned the attack on the Turkish group, which was located in Khotyn as a reserve intended to cover the skirts and a possible attack on Galicia. Indeed, in August and September 1672 the Turkish sultan took Kamenetz Podolsk, and several other cities and fortresses. One of the reasons for the failure of the Commonwealth was that now she could not use the full power of the Ukrainian Cossacks, as it was in 1621, except for the part of the Cossacks, who supported Ataman Zaporizhzhya Sich, then - the Right-Bank Ukraine Hetman Michael Khanenko.

 

To regain lost ground, and the locks, the Polish troops had to smash the first Hotinskaya enemy force to cut off the Turkish garrison on the skirts of their supply bases in Moldova. Having collected thirty thousand troops from Poland and Lithuania, and calling upon the Cossack hetman M. Khanenko Right Bank, the Polish crown hetman Jan Sobieski moved in autumn 1673 to Khotyn.

 

November 10 the Polish-Lithuanian-Cossack army approached the castle and is located in the fortifications built by the Turks in 1621 and began to fire at the forefront of the enemy guns. Turks Hotinskaya group employs almost 40 000 soldiers, including 8 thousand. Janissary led four pashas, commanded by Hussein Pasha serasker. At the disposal of the Turks had 120 guns, and the Polish troops - 50. Surprisingly, Cossacks led by Colonel Motovidlom and German infantry general Denemarka went on the offensive and broke into the Turkish camp. Obviously, Sobieski had not expected such a dexterity and swiftness by the Cossacks and the Germans, so did not have time to focus on the direction of impact force required. The Turks managed to destroy the brave. Heroic death fallen Cossack Colonel Motovidlo General Denemark and captain Jarocki. But the next day, November 11, Polish artillery struck the Turkish fortifications and partially destroy them. This made it possible to break into the Turkish army in the camp and to counter-attack. Subsequently, the enemy was surrounded. Among the Turks there was panic, they fled to the Dniester where there was a wooden bridge connecting Khotinsk and Podolsk riverbank. However, unable to bear the weight, broken cities and thousands of Turks were killed in the river. The defeat was complete. 20,000 Turks were killed during the battle, 6,000 fugitives were drowned in the Dniester, 10,000 Turks reached Kamenetz, but on the way they have destroyed the rebels and Podolsk Cossacks Wallachians that managed to swim across the Dniester, and a pursuit of the enemy. The loss of the Polish-Lithuanian-Cossack troops were relatively small, but among the dead November 11, 1673 was a young nobleman Stepan Orlik, father of the future Hetman Orlyk.

 

The victory of Jan Sobieski under Khotyn launched military glory of the commander, whose ancestors belonged to the Ukrainian gentry, and his father was a royal commissioner in Khotyn war in 1621. This victory gave the Polish crown hetman Jan Sobieski, which the Poles called the "Sun King".

 

Although the battle in 1673 did not have such historical significance as the events of 1621, it also affected the intensification of the struggle of the peoples of Central Europe against Turkish aggression.

 

Battle elephants and camel cavalry.

 

In the battles of Khotyn fortress used different types of modern weapons at that time. Military chiefs of the Ottoman Porte even used elephants and camel cavalry. These exotic animals that have not seen the majority of European soldiers, with a loud roar and tramp madly rushed towards the enemy and could frighten the most courageous warriors.


However, under Khotyn "secret" weapon of Turkish sultans did not meet expectations due to the courage of the Ukrainian Cossacks and Polish soldiers.


Under the walls of Khotyn fortress there were many grand battles that for centuries defined the fate of European nations and the vectors of the foreign policy of many countries. Leaders of warring armies used by Khotyn and "outlandish" unprecedented kind of troops to demoralize the enemy soldiers.


These innovations, which had intimidated the enemy in the battle for Khotyn, belong to the fighting elephants and camel cavalry of the Sultan's army. For the first time the Turks used under Khotyn elephants and camels in 1621. Then the walls of the fortress of the Turkish sultan gave 160,000th army. It included four war elephants and several thousand camels. What kind of danger to the Cossacks Sagaydachnogo and Polish soldiers hetman Jan Chodkiewicz dormant these are generally peaceful, animals?


During the battle, the elephants have served as powerful rams that tore the enemy system, destroying the enemy, destroying fortifications. For fighting elephants specially trained. They could trample the enemy down, grab a soldier trunk and throw on the ground wield tusks. To their irritation elephants opriskuvaly red wine or mulberry juice.


I decided to use the elephants and the Turkish Sultan Osman II in. However, he managed to bring in only four Khotyn "combat units". This is obviously due to the remoteness of the Middle Dniester. To participate directly in the war elephants Khotyn war? Hard to say. Their use, in the presence of the Polish-Cossack troops firearms, could not bring the desired effect. Therefore, most likely, the elephants had to fulfill the role of intimidation and demoralization of the enemy. Special hopes are pinned on them to fight with the Polish and Cossack cavalry. For it is evident that the horses panic fear of the giants of the animal world.


As the course of the fighting during the war Khotyn, elephants are not frightened, and as they could make a mess of any elephants into the ranks of Ukrainian Cossacks? They've seen during sea voyages and attacks on the city of the Ottoman Empire. And the area under Khotyn does not promote the use of elephants, who need a smooth space, rather than the high banks of the Dniester River and deep ravines with hollows. And most importantly, can be frightened elephant Ukrainian Cossacks, who "and not afraid of the devil himself." Convinced of the impossibility of using elephants under Khotyn, Osman AI after the signing of the peace agreement one of them presented the Polish Prince Vladislav, and the other was returned to Turkey.


But the elephants, which are seen by Khotyn, remembered the Cossacks. They even went into the painting scenes on the broadside paintings and ceramic tile. In particular, on one of the tiles found at Umanschine, shows an elephant with a mahout. Here there is an explanatory inscription "elephant" and give the rest of the "16 ...", apparently in 1621.


Another animal, which should help the Turkish army of master Khotyn was a camel. Together with the army under Sultan fortress drove several thousand camels. They were used primarily as pack animals for transportation of troops and cargo, as well as entered into a special camel cavalry units.

 

This cavalry, as a kind of troops, appeared in the army of Arabs, Assyrians, Persians, Syrians, and other nations. For the "cavalry" was used generally females moved faster. An advantage of the animals was velocity. However, in the battles of Khotyn camels, like elephants, were not "secret" weapons, and did not help to win the Polish-Cossack army. Moreover, under the walls of the fortress from the gunfire and unfavorable lost a substantial number of camels. The Polish ambassador in Turkey Zbarazhsky Kristof wrote: "the soldiers themselves much poorer for the Khotyn war, because there are numerous amounts of lost horses and camels."


Attempts to use elephants and camels in the battle for Khotyn continued in the following campaigns. The Russian-Turkish wars of the XVIII century among the royal troops captured prey constantly featured hundreds of camels. For example, only one fight under the walls of the fortress in 1769 Commander (later Field Marshal) Prince Russian connection Prozorovsky captured "Turkish convoy took three flags, Pashinsky silver mace, 150 camels laden ..."


Europeans first became acquainted with war elephants during the Eastern campaign of Alexander the Great and V century BC. In the Battle of Gaugamela Persian king Darius IRS used fifteen elephants, and then in the battle against the Indian king's time of Alexander's army resisted for 200 elephants. Macedonians frightened elephants torches with fire Hamstring on his feet with the help of special axes.


After a few centuries, we met with fighting giants and the Romans, who had to learn the methods of struggle with the elephants Carthaginian commander Hannibal. To do this, they used pig scream that scares the elephants.

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